In the previous lesson, we studied the definition of nouns and their types. Now, we are going to see the gender of nouns and the rules for changing gender.

Definition of Gender: The division of nouns into different classes is called gender.

Gender has been divided into four classes as follow:

  1. Masculine Gender
  2. Feminine Gender
  3. Common Gender
  4. Neuter Gender

Let’s discuss them all one by one with definitions and examples:

Masculine Gender

A noun that denotes a male person or animal is called the masculine gender.

For example Father, Son, Boy, King Time, Thunder, etc.

Feminine Gender

A noun that denotes a female person or animal is called the feminine gender.

Examples: Woman, Mother, Nature, Sister, Tigress, etc.

Common Gender

A noun that can denote both male and female gender is called a common gender.

For example Baby, Child, Person, Enemy, Neighbour, Teacher, Servant, etc.

Neuter Gender

A noun that denotes a thing that is neither male nor female is called a neuter gender.

Examples: Copy, Book, Room, Paper, TV, Box, etc.


Rules for Changing Masculine Gender to Feminine Gender

Rule 1

In some cases, adding ‘ess’ in a masculine noun to make a feminine noun.

MasculineFeminine
AuthorAuthoress
CountCountess
HostHostess
JewJewess
MayorMayoress
PeerPeeress
PoetPoetess
TutorTutoress
TailorTailoress
GiantGiantess

Rule 2

In some cases, removing the last vowel and the consonant before it in a masculine noun makes a feminine noun.

MasculineFeminine
ActorActoress
HunterHuntress
PrincePrincess
WaiterWaitress
TigerTigress

Rule 3

A masculine noun can be changed into a feminine noun by making some changes in the words.

AbbotAbbess
EmperorEmpress
GovernorGoverness
DukeDuchess
MasterMistress

Rule 4

By making a change in the first or second word of the compound masculine noun.

MasculineFeminine
HeadmasterHeadmistress
MilkmanMilkmaid
Man-servantWoma-servant
GrandsonGranddaughter
LandlordLandlady

Rule 5

There is no rule to change a masculine noun into a feminine noun for foreign and miscellaneous words.

MasculineFeminine
LadLass
BrotherSister
HorseMare
GentlemanLady
BridegroomBride
DogBitch
BeauBelle
BoarSow
GanderGoose
ManWoman

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